Apologetics Index: Information about religious cults, sects, movements, doctrines, apologetics and counter-cult ministry.  Also: daily religion news, articles on Christian life and ministry, editorials, daily cartoon.
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Macdonald, Andrew

Pseudonym of Dr. William Pierce, who authored The Turner Diaries under that name.

Machado, Silvania

 referral See this page

Magdalene, Mary

 referral See this page


The ability, real or imagined, to cause changes to result in conformity with one's will or desires by invoking or utilizing mysterious and/or invisible forces, and thereby influencing, controlling, or manipulating reality for one's own purposes. Magic is synonymous with sorcery, and, as used here, is to be distinguished from mere sleight-of-hand. In some occultic circles, it is frequently spelled "magick" to distinguish it from sleight-of-hand.

Magic: The Gathering

Popular role-playing card game with countless occult references.

- Articles -
Christian Magic: The Gathering Brief overview. On the Answers In Action site Click for more information on this entry


Definitions vary but include: the science of control of the secret forces of nature and the comprehensive knowledge of all nature. Books of magick contain spells and rituals. Wiccans spell it with a "k" to distinguish it from "magic," which they refer to as sleight of hand used by entertainers.
Tanya S. Biank, Wiccans seek place on Fort Bragg, Fayetteville Online, Aug. 8, 1999

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi

A gury. The Indian mystic who founded the Hindu practice of Transcendental Meditation (and was worshipped by the Beatles in the 1960s).


A liberal and theistic branch of Buddhism comprising sects chiefly in Tibet, China, and Japan, recognizing a large body of scripture in addition to the Pali canon, and teaching social concern and universal salvation.

See also: Theravada,   Lamaism

Main God

Chinese cult said to have cheated its followers out of money and grain.

Non-Christian Maitreya

Promoted by Benjamin Creme of New Age organization Share International as a reincarnation of Jesus. Considered to be one of the "Ascended Masters."

The World Teacher for the age of Aquarius. The Christ and head of the Spiritual Hierarchy of our planet. The Master of all the Masters.
Definition from the Share International site


 referral See this page

Aberrational, Heretical, Heterodox, Suborthodox or Unorthodox "Manifest Sons of God"

 referral Expanded Manifest Sons of God

Manila Manifesto

In July 1989, over 3,000 evangelicals met for Lausanne II, the Second International Congress on World Evangelization, held in Manila, The Philippines. Like Lausanne I, this conference was sponsored under the auspices of the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization. One of the documents to come out of Lausanne II was "The Manila Manifesto," which should be viewed as an extension of the aims and purposes of the Lausanne Covenant. The Manila Manifesto consists of two parts: a shorter portion of 21 succinct affirmations, and a larger body of elaboration and exposition. In this appendix, we are printing only the shorter section of affirmations. Part 2 of the Manila Manifesto, with its expository text, is commended for further examination in the book, "The Manila Manifesto" (1989), published by the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization (2531 Nina St., Pasadena, CA 91107).
As found on the EMNR site

Manmin Chungang Sungkyol

Korean sect of Christianity, thrown out of the Christian Council of Korea in April, 1999, over heretical claims. Led by Lee Jae-rok.

Mansfield, Hal


Sanskrit. A mystical formula of invocation or incantation.

Mantras are sacred utterances thought to mystically represent the essense of religious literature or the dieties they invoke, thus conveying supernatural knowledge and/or power. They are used in religious worship, ritual, and meditation.
John Ankerberg and John Weldon, Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs, Harvest House Publishers, Eugene, Oregon. 1996. pp 342

Aberrational, Heretical, Heterodox, Suborthodox or Unorthodox Mariology

 referral See this page

Aberrational, Heretical, Heterodox, Suborthodox or UnorthodoxGrey Zone, Unsure, or Offkey Marrs, Texe

Self-styled apologist known for his sensationalistic, speculative claims. Disseminates conspiracy theories, hype, and other unbalanced information. Taken seriously only be those on the fringe...

David Icke, a former British television sportscaster turned prophet of doom, and Texe Marrs, a retired U.S. Air Force officer turned pastor, have issued Web site warnings that, come millennium eve, former President George Bush and fellow members of a cult known as the Illuminati will summon oppressive evil forces at a black mass in a burial chamber deep inside the great Cheops pyramid.
Egyptian boogie nights, U.S. News & World Report, Dec. 27, 1999

Living Truth Ministries,
1708 Patterson Rd.
Austin, TX, 78733
Tel: 1-800-234-9673
Email: livingtr@texemarrs.com
WWW: Flashpoint

Flashpoint (newsletter) - its articles range from the ludicrous to the bizarre.

Books include "Big Sister is Watching You" (Hillary Clinton and the White House Feminists Who Now Control America), "Circle of Intrique" (The Hidden Inner Circle of the Global Illuminati Conspiracy), and "Project L.U.C.I.D.," (The Beast 666 Universal Human Control System).

Radio Program
World of Prophecy

Marian Workers Of Atonement

Martial Arts

Martin, Walter

 referral See this page

Christian Martin, Walter (Web Site)

Operated by the Religious Information Network, headed by Walter Martin's eldest daughter and her husband.

The site includes a "Tape Library," which can be accessed used the free RealPlayer Also, excerpts from Martin's "Kingdom of the Cults."

Since Walter Martin's Religious InfoNet first began two years ago, many people have written to ask our position on CRI and Hank Hanegraaff. In late 1997, Darlene Martin asked us to investigate allegations against Hank that were brought to her attention by close friends and other concerned Christians. After an intensive two year investigation into the situation at CRI, we are now able to publicly address this issue.


Martinez, Peter

Associated with The Prophecy Club. Calls himself an apostle. Claims that "the Lord" told Stan Johnson and himself to start churches in the 42 cities where The Prophecy Club has meetings. "Each city will get only one church, called 'The Church of Ephesus', or 'The Church of Philadelphia', 'The Church of Dallas', 'The Church of Modesto' and so on." This 'city-church' concept is similar to that being promoted by a number of other aberrant and cultic movements.


To torture or put to death someone for adhering to his or her faith. The Greek word "martyria" means "witness"

- News Database -   » About this News Archive
(Apr. 28, 1999) Scholars reclaim the word "martyr"

Non-Christian Masonic Lodge

Masters, Roy

Founder and President Foundation for Human Understanding
Real name: Reuben Obermeister

- Articles -
Christian Foundation for Human Understanding Brief overview of Masters' teaching.
Christian New Dimensions Watchman Fellowship article about the Masters-owned publication

McCartney, Bill

Founder and leader of Promise Keepers

McClung, Floyd

Senior pastor, Metro Christian Fellowship, as of July 4, 1999. McClung is known for his 30 years of leadership in Youth With A Mission

McDowell, Josh

Author of "Evidence That Demands A Verdict," and "More Evidence That Demands A Verdict"

- Articles -
Christian A Jury In Need Of Dismissal A Christian responds to the critical article listed below.
Secular The Jury Is In: The Ruling on McDowell's "Evidence" A skeptic non-believer dismisses McDowell's evidence

McKean, Kip

Leader and World Missions Evangelist, International Churches of Christ.
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McMartin Preschool

 referral See this page
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McNutt, Francis

Former priest. Author of "healing," a book that contributed to John Wimber's theology and practice of praying with people for healing.

McVeigh, Timothy

 referral See this page

Meadow Haven

"Meadow Haven is a residential facility created by the New England Institute for Religious Research to meet this critical need. Set in a quiet, rural setting, Meadow Haven exists to help people through the radical and many times traumatic life- changes that can accompany the departure of a high-control group. The full-time staff and support groups are well-equipped to assist guests as they work through the practical, psychological and spiritual issues that arise from leaving such groups."

Medicine, Alternativ


Place in Yugoslavia where the Virgin Mary allegedly appears.

See Apparitions - Virgin Mary;   Mariology

AcademicPluralistic Melton, J. Gordon

This Methodist minister (ordained elder in the United Methodist Church) is seen by many Christian and secular apologists and counter-cult professionals as a cult apologist. Though he professes to be an Evangelical Christian, many Evangelicals do not consider his views on cults and other religions as representative.

Extended Entry See Extended Entry

Menegotto, A.

National coordinator, Una Voce Grida!. A CESNUR supporter and promoter.


 referral See this page


Channels or pathways through which qi energy is said to flow, and along the course of which acupuncture points are located. There are 12 principal meridians, linked to the internal organs, which are paired (right and left sides) and name after the organs with which they are associated. There are also 8 'extra'meridians which are not directly linked to organs; these do not have acupuncture points in their own right, but are routed between points on the principle meridians.
Peter Gravett, Making Sense of English in Alternative Medicine, Chambers Harrap Publisher, Edinburgh, 1993

Non-Christian Messianic Communities, The

See The Twelve Tribes

Note: "Messianic Communities" has no affiliation, in theology or practice, with the Messianic Jewish Movement. The former is a cult. The latter is a movement of Jews who have accepted Jesus Christ as Messiah, Savior and Lord.

Messianic Jews


Christian Jews For Jesus (Pro)
Non-Christian Outreach Judaism "Outreach Judaism is an international organization that responds directly to the issues raised by missionaries and cults, by exploring Judaism in contradistinction to fundamentalist Christianity."


Traditional meaning: the branch of philosophy that attempts to understand the fundamental nature of all reality, visible or invisible.

Secondary, popular meaning: the study of, or belief in, (controversial) phenomena beyond the physical (e.g. the supernatural). Adj.: metaphysical

The two main, separate areas of popular metaphysics are mysticism and occultism.

In the philosophical (not occultic) sense, metaphysics pertains to questions of ultimate reality -- in both the sensible and insensible realms. Such questions include: What actually exists? What is its nature or essence? What is its origin?

Metaphysics, Open

Metro Christian Fellowship

Formerly known as the (infamous) Kansas City Fellowship. Later became the Kansas City Vineyard. Still deeply involved with the Toronto Blessing Movement. Also a prominent sources of Latter Rain and Manifest Sons of God theology.

Metzger, Tom

Meyer, Joyce

 referral See this page

Christian Midwest Christian Outreach

Christian apologetics and counter-cult ministry. Publishes the bi-monthly Midwest Christian Outreach Journal (excellent articles!, and supports a telephone ministry that consists of both recorded messages and a live line. These phone lines are focused at Jehovah's Witnesses, ex-Witnesses and Mormons.

P.O. Box 455,
Lombard, Il. 60148-0455
Phone: 630-627-9028
Fax: 630-627-6829
Email: info@midwestoutreach.org

Militia Movement

 referral See this page

Milingo, Emmanuel

 referral See this page


The belief that human suffering will soon be eliminated in an imminent apocalyptic scenario, ensuring that the collective salvation of humanity is accomplished.

See Doomsday cult


Technically, the next millennium starts on Jan. 1st, 2001. Some movements and individuals attach spiritual and/or political significance to the end of the millennium, predicting either the return of Christ, doomsday, or a United Nations plot to rule the world (New World Order).

Doomsday cults are sometimes referred to by the media as "Millennium cults" - correctly so if the group's predictions, preparations or actions are motivated or triggered by what the group views to be a millennium-related doomsday event.

See End Times

Miller, Glenn

Miller, Monte Kim

Former anti-cult activist turned cult leader, Concerned Christians.

Miller believes he is the voice of God. His followers believe he is one of the two prophets of Revelation 11. Miller has predicted that he would die on the streets of Jerusalem in December 1999. Has made doomsday predictions, including that Denver, Colorado would be destroyed in an October 3, 1998 apocalypse. In preparation, Miller and his followers left Denver.

For more information, see the News Archive section at the Concerned Christians entry.

Millar, Sandy

Vicar of Holy Trinity Brompton. Known for his dabbling in the Toronto Blessing Movement.

John Arnott laid hands on Sandy Millar of Holy Trinity Church, in Brompton, England, who laid hands on Steve Hill, who laid hands on pastor John Kilpatrick.


Mind Control

Used of cults, "mind control" or "brainwashing" refers to the unethical use of persuasion methods with the aim of recruiting people into joining or remaining involved with a group, movement, or cause.

» For details, see Brainwashing, as well as our updated entry on mind control.

- See Also -
» Apologetics Index Statement regarding brainwashing, deprogramming
   and exit counseling
» Brainwashing
» Deprogramming
» Spiritual Abuse

Minority Religion

A term some people prefer to use instead of "cult" or "sect" because they perceive it as more neutral. Some cult members and cult apologists use the term in an effort to justify theirs claims of "religious discrimination."

Cult apologist Massimo Introvigne says:

Words are not neutral. Words such as 'cults' (or 'sectes' in French or equivalent words in other European languages) are easily used as tools of hate and discrimination and should be avoided, particularly in official documents. Scholars often use 'new religious movements'. Although better than 'cults', even this language can cause misunderstandings about movements which are new only in the West while they represent a century-old-tradition in the East (such as ISKCON, popularly known as the Hare Krishna movement, or Soka Gakkai, part of the mainline tradition of Japanese Nichiren Buddhism). The most neutral term is 'religious minorities'. It avoids judgements about whether a group is acceptable, or is connected to an old tradition.

Minton, Bob

Millionaire Robert S. Minton, a retired investment banker from New England, is a prominent, outspoken critic of the Church of Scientology. He is the chairman of The Lisa McPherson Trust, which he recently founded.

Somewhat controversial due to his confrontational style, he also is a prime target for harassment by Scientologists.

- News Database -
» Archived news items
(Includes items added between Oct. 25, 1999 and Jan. 31, 2002. See about this database)


The Christian religion not only was at first attended with miracles, but even at this day cannot be believed by any reasonable person without one. Mere reason is insufficient to convince us of its veracity: and whoever is moved by faith to assent to it, is conscious of a continued miracle in his own person, which subverts all the principles of his understanding, and gives him a determination to believe what is most contrary to custom and experience.
David Hume (1711-76) Scottish philosopher. Essays, 'Of Miracles'

Miss Cleo

 referral See this page

Christian Mission Apologia

An evangelical apologetics and counter-cult organization in Brazil.

Rev. Caleb Castellani
Caixa Postal 121 - Agencia Central, 01059-970 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
Tel/Fax: 55(11)5611-9086
E-mail: revcaleb@bol.com.br

Grey Zone, Unsure, or Offkey Missler, Chuck and Nancy

Chuck Missler is known for what could best be termed his pop-apologetics, which include anything from speculations regarding the "face on Mars" to "intelligence briefings" on current events (often giving the suggestion of benefitting from inside information not available elsewhere.)

- News Database -   » About this News Archive
(Oct. 5, 1998) Christians prepare for millenium

Mitchell, Doug

Mitchell considers the current leaders of the various factions of Branch Davidians to be false prophets. Instead, he believes God has called him to be the leader...


Small "sect that broke away from the Russian Orthodox Church in the 1600s. About 60 percent of America's churchgoing Molokans -- about 3,000 people -- live in Los Angeles."

The Molokan name comes from the Russian word 'molok,' which means milk. The followers of the sect distinguished themselves by drinking milk instead of wine in religious ceremonies.
San Jose Mercury News, Sep. 20, 1998

- News Database -   » About this News Archive
(Sep. 20, 1998) USA - Russian sect digs in its heels

Grey Zone, Unsure, or Offkey Momentus

Controversial encounter/awareness training group, billed as "Christian" Its training exercises are said to be virtually identical to those of New Age-influenced Lifespring, of which Momentus founder Daniel Tocchini is a graduate. As with other LGATs, Momentus fosters secrecy.

I believe that this evasiveness is because the trainers, as well as most graduates of the training, even if they love Momentus, rightly know that most Christians would never take Momentus if they had any inkling of what went on in it. I know that I never would have. And that's because what goes on in it has little to nothing to do with life and godliness as unveiled in the Word of God. But it does have a lot to do with psychotherapeutic practices (from Freudian to primal scream therapy), with indoctrination techniques (similar to those used by the Red Chinese during the Korean War, as well as by cultists even today), and with New Age visualization and occultism. Ridicule, mockery, and abusive language directed against the trainees by the trainers (and eventually, as they get into the "spirit" of Momentus, the other trainees) is par for the course, as they work to shock and break down the trainees into abandoning their own belief systems and accepting those of the trainers. The methods used in the training I participated in (and in others I've been told about) are not at all godly, even if some people believe the results to be so. (God's Word doesn't justify the worldly concept of the end justifying the means.)
Bill Barton, Momentus Training - New Age Deception A brief description of Momentus training by a former trainee

Among the first to graduate from Momentus, were members of Tocchini's Santa Rosa Christian Church (controversial in the early eighties for the practice of shepherding)

- Articles -
Christian Former Area Sponsor Explains Why She Now Rejects Momentus Training
Christian Momentus' Intimidation Tactics A family therapist describes similarities she sees between the tactics of Momentus and domestic abusers.
Christian Momentus Training - New Age Deception A brief description of Momentus training by a former trainee
Christian My Experience with Momentus By a former trainee
Christian Problems in Momentus Summary of the troublesome areas of Momentus, with comparisons to Lifespring/est training.

- Book Reviews -
Christian Killing The Victim

- Sites -
Grey Zone, Unsure, or Offkey Mashiyach Ministries Official Momentus Site.


A world view. The belief in one infinite, personal God.

Moon, Sun Myung

Unification Church cult founder and leader who has proclaimed himself "Messiah," "True Father," and "successor to Jesus Christ."

Was jailed in the USA for tax evasion.


Moore, Teresa

Leads an anti-Koresh faction of Branch Davidians. One of two women charged with carrying on the work of Lois Roden.

Aberrational, Heretical, Heterodox, Suborthodox or Unorthodox Moral Government Theology

For details, see this extended entry

Moran, Jim


A "trigger word" used in many renewal and revival meetings to "call down" or encourage the Holy Spirit to come and minister to people. Often causes or increases manifestations.

The late John Wimber taught that when ministering to people, it is a good idea to "Bless what the Father is doing." Often he simply prayed "More, Lord! More of you!" Somehow this simple request has taken on a life of it's own, and is now used to trigger or continue manifestations.

Morehead, John

Christian apologist and cult expert. Until recently (Jan. 2003) Morehead was President of EMNR. He is still an associate director of Watchman Fellowship, a non-profit organization specializing in cults and new religious movements. He is also adjunct instructor at Capital Bible College in Sacramento, California teaching courses on cults, as well as new and world religions.

Unfortunately, in recent years John Morehead has become a vocal and active supporter of several cult apologists, claiming that evangelical Christians can learn from their allegedly 'missiological approaches.' He has invited cult apologist J. Gordon Melton and cult apologist denfenderDouglas Cowan to speak at an EMNR conference (2002).

Morehead's private project, The Sacred Tribes Journal, which he co-edits, prominently links to CESNUR and the sites of Jeffrey K. Hadden and Irving Hexham, without informing people of the controversial nature of their work.

He can be reached at P.O. Box 227, Loomis, CA 95650-0227, (916) 631-7896, e-mail: morehead@quiknet.com.

Morey, Dr. Robert

 referral See this page

Mormon Fundamentalism

A Mormon sect.

- Articles -
Christian About Mormon Fundamentalism
Christian My Escape From The Cult by Janis Hutchinson

Profess to be Christian but are outside orthodox Christianity Mormonism

See this extended entry for articles, books, chatlinks, message boards, sites, and more on Mormonism.

Christian Mormonism Research Ministry

"Challenging the Claims of Mormonism Since 1979"

Content-rich site. Publishes "Mormonism Researched" (quarterly), available free of charge.

Bill McKeever, Director
P.O. Box 20705
El Cajon, CA 92021-0955

Aberrational, Heretical, Heterodox, Suborthodox or Unorthodox Morningstar Ministries

Rick Joyner's ministry.

Movement for the Establishment of the Temple

Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God

Muktananda, Swami

Muktananda founded Siddha Yoga Dham of America (SYDA), and was also a highly controversial guru. He is especially popular among the Hollywood jetset.
John Ankerberg and John Weldon, Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs Harvest House Publishers, Oregon, 1996.

Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD)

Often controversial psychiatric diagnosis in which a patient is considered to have more than one "personalities". Frequently, such personalities come to light in conjunction with what is referred to as False Memory Syndrome.

The syndrome may have hit its peak two years ago with a Wisconsin woman. In six years of therapy her psychiatrist convinced her she had a record 126 personalities. One of them was a duck. He was billing her insurance company for group therapy. His name was Kenneth Olson and she won a $3.6 million lawsuit against him.

Mumford, John and Eli (Eleanor)

Pastors, South West London Vineyard. Promoters of Toronto Blessing.


Murdock, Mike (Mike Murdock)

Music - Contemporary Christian

"Songs that we now consider sacred classics were once as criticized as today's contemporary Christian music. When 'Silent Night' was first published, George Weber, music director of the Mainz Cathedral, called it 'vulgar mischief and void of all religious and Christian feelings.' And Charles Spurgeon, the great English pastor, despised the contemporary worship songs of his day--the same songs we now revere."

"Perhaps most impossible to believe, Handel's _Messiah_ was widely condemned as 'vulgar theatre' by the churchmen of his day. Like the criticism of today's contemporary choruses, the _Messiah_ was panned for having too much repetition and not enough message--it contains nearly one hundred repetitions of 'Hallelujah!'"
Rick Warren, "The Purpose Driven Church," Zondervan Publishing House.

- Articles -
Christian Music in the Bible and Music on the Radio: A Biblical Theology of Music Applied to the Contemporary Music Styles Debate [No longer online] Paper presented by Gregg Strawbridge, Ph.D., at the 1998 Evangelical Theological Society Meeting in Orlando, FL. Includes refutation of Bill Gothard's teachings again music. (An earlier version is available at the Internet Archive)

- Books -
Christian Sects, Love, and Rock & Roll: My Life on Record by Joel Heng Hartse
Experience eight hours of the best Christian music, compiled by CCM Magazine. You must have the latest (free) RealPlayer

- Multimedia -
Christian Twenty Years of Christian Music
Experience eight hours of the best Christian music, compiled by CCM Magazine. You must have the latest (free) RealPlayer

- See Also -
» Jesus People

- Sites -
Christian Christian Rock Apologetics A defense of Christian rock music.

Christian Muslim-Christian Debate Website

Well-organized, content-rich website operated by Hyde Park Christian fellowship - an informal network of Christian researchers in the United Kingdom, whose primary interest is the academic study of all issues relevant to Islam and Christianity.

Muslim American Society

In 1975 W. Deen Mohammed founded a movement that took tens of thousands of blacks from his late father Elijah Muhammad's separatist Nation of Islam into mainstream Sunni Muslim practices. It has evolved into the Muslim American Society.
Islamic confab will tackle more than religion, Philadelphia Daily News, Sep. 2, 1999

Muslim Council of Britain

Non-government organization. 250 Muslim groups in Great Britain cooperate in this organization.

Muslim Parliament of Great Britain

Non-government, Muslim organization founded in 1992 to provide community leaders and prominent Moslems with a forum for debate.

Non-Christian Mystica, The

An on-line encyclopedia of the occult, mysticism, magic, paranormal, etcetera.


The belief that direct knowledge of God, spiritual truth, or ultimate reality can be attained through subjective experience (e.g. intuition or insight).

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